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Home: 5. Evaluating sources

13th June to 22nd June 2018

Evaluating sources - The CRAAP Test

The Craap Test

Coordinator, LW 2019, QUT | Library | the CRAAP Test: Critically Evaluating Information Sources - Transcript, viewed 04 August 2021.

Stack, M 2016, Mepham High School Library Blog Spot The CRAAP Test, viewed 04 August 2021, < >.

Evaluating sources - The CRAAP Test video

Applying the CRAAP Test to Print Resources

The CRAAP Test should be applied to all sources that you use in your research, including books and journal articles.

Currency - use the Title page or inside the front cover to look for the date of publication. Sometimes the publication date will be at the back of the book. The date of publication is also available on the online catalogue, in the details of the item. Remember the information in the book will be a little older as it takes some time from when the author finished the book to when it is published. Each database of journal articles will display the date of publication differently. Carefully scan the page to determine the date of publication.

Relevance - use the Table of Contents and the Index to search for relevant chapters, people, events or concepts. Skim read some of these sections and consider whether the book meets the needs of your research task. Read the journal article abstract (summary).

Authority - Books are not peer reviewed. Check what else this author has written and whether they have qualifications or expert knowledge of this subject. While journal articles are peer reviewed, it is also wise to check that the author's work is well respected and their qualifications.

Accuracy - Can the information in this book be verified in other sources? Does the author footnote their work? Is there a bibliography at the end of the book or article? Are the images and illustrations attributed to an artist or photographer, do they add value to the work? Are there relevant, recent tables, statistics or graphs?

Purpose - Is this book or article aimed at students, at what level? Does it provide sufficient detail for your research project? Does the author have a particular political or social bias? Is the book produced by an organisation, industry group or government, if so what is their motivation?


Evaluating websites

Use the Applying the CRAAP Test to a Mock Web Site box below to help you locate the information on web pages that enables you to evaluate them. 

Applying the CRAAP Test to a Mock Web Site

Beaufort, J Cloudflare n.d., viewed 04 August 2021, <>
File:Climate Change Adaptation Icon.png - Wikimedia Commons
 2019, viewed 04 August 2021, < >.

Murphy, J 2015, Library Guides: Evaluating Information: Evaluating Websites, viewed 04 August 2021, < >.